The next challenge for psychiatric genetics: Genes coil around histones, tightening or loosening to control gene expression. Dopamine might also be relevant in the treatment of such dependency.
For the purpose of this article, discussion is limited to drug-related addictions, specifically addiction to nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drugs. It may be harder for people with certain genes to quit once they start. There is treatment and hope. Heritability of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence.
Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans. Introduction The social and economic costs of alcohol and other substance use disorders to our society are substantial. Glen Hanson When Addiction Runs in the Family Because addiction has an inherited component, it often runs in families.
Although our knowledge of the specific genes involved in addiction is not sufficiently advanced for this information to be practically used in clinical settings at the present time, the hope is that eventually information about specific genes that alter susceptibility for addictive disorders can be used to provide more individual-specific risk assessments.
Arch Gen Psychiatry, Chipping away at the genetics of smoking behavior. Furthermore, differences in how these phenotypes are delimited can have an impact on the results of gene discovery efforts.
There are many ways that genes could cause one person to be more vulnerable to addiction than another. NIH has created "Big Data" policies that will enable better sharing of information https: SNPs are differences in just a single letter of the genetic code from one person to another. This page was last updated February More DrugFacts.
One study looked at people who were diagnosed with drug or alcohol addiction, and compared them to 61 people who did not have an addiction. Genomewide linkage study in the Irish affected sib pair study of alcohol dependence: A functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene is associated with naltrexone response in alcohol-dependent patients.
Symbiotic relationship of pharmacogenetics and drugs of abuse.
Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence. Ethanol consumption and resistance are inversely related to neuropeptide Y levels.
Associations of glutamate decarboxylase genes with initial sensitivity and age-at-onset of alcohol dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence. Much work remains before we can fully characterize how the genes identified thus far confer risk for drug addiction.
GABAA receptors are sensitive to alcohol, and their activation can result in sedation, motor impairment, and anxiolysis; their activation might also influence response to alcohol administration through reward pathways.
Mice without the cannabinoid receptor gene Cnr1 are less responsive to morphine. Central neuropeptide Y in anxiety- and stress-related behavior and in ethanol intake. Comorbidity Epidemiologic studies find that individuals rarely abuse a single substance.
The genetics of alcohol and other drug dependence.
Pharmacotherapy effects on smoking cessation vary with nicotine metabolism gene CYP2A6. You may never have had a problem with either of them, but if you continue to use alcohol or marijuana, even casually, they'll eventually lead you back to your drug of choice. Am J Med Genet.
Am J Med Genet. The habenulo-interpeduncular pathway in nicotine aversion and withdrawal. J Natl Cancer Inst. Both genetic and environmental variables contribute to the initiation of use of addictive agents and to the transition from use to addiction. Addictions are moderately to highly heritable.
Family, adoption, and twin studies reveal that an individual’s risk tends to be proportional to the degree of genetic relationship to an addicted relative. Genetic studies and other analyses clarifying the origins of addiction help destigmatize addiction, leading to more prompt treatment.
Knowledge of genetic factors in etiology and treatment response may enable the individualization of prevention and treatment, as well as the identification of new therapeutic targets.
Genetic Interactions: Genes can sometimes contain conflicting information, and in most cases, one gene will win the battle for dominance.
Some genes act in an additive way. Some genes act in an additive way. In addition, studies suggest that an animal’s drug use can be affected by that of its cage mate, 23, 24 showing that some social influences can enhance risk or protection.
In addition, exposure to drugs or stress in a person’s social or cultural environment can alter both gene expression and gene function, which, in some cases, may persist throughout a person’s life. In addition, the specific effects of both direct and indirect genetic influences can vary significantly depending on the environmental risks for alcoholism a person encounters during their lifetime.
Genetic influences appear to account for about half the risk of becoming an alcoholic, though the genetic link seems to be stronger between fathers and sons. Addiction to cocaine or heroin appears to be more influenced by genetics than alcoholism, while addiction to marijuana appears to be less so.Genetic influence addition